The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics
[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 20, No. 1, pp.662-691
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print)
Print publication date 31 Mar 2020
Received 31 Oct 2020 Revised 10 Nov 2020 Accepted 25 Nov 2020

Effects of Focus on Form Instruction through Listening in Blended Learning on the Development of Grammar and Listening Skills

Hee Yeon Kang ; Chung Hyun Lee
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies

Copyright 2020 KASELL
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Focus on form (FonF) instruction with communicative activities has received wide attention in grammar teaching and learning. The successful implementation of FonF instruction requires enough time for ample input and production in appropriate circumstances. Therefore, blended learning can be applied to FonF instruction. This study aims to examine the effects of FonF instruction through listening activities in blended learning on the development of grammar knowledge and listening comprehension. 118 university students in Korea participated and were divided into three groups, a conventional listening group as a control group (CG), a FonF instructional group (FG), and a FonF instruction in blended learning group (FBG) as experimental groups. Regarding data collection, grammar pre-, mid-, and post-tests and listening pre- and post-tests were used for quantitative research. The main findings were as follows. First, three instructions were effective for the development of learners’ grammar knowledge and listening comprehension. Second, FBG was the most effective among the three groups, and FG did not have a greater effect than CG. It is concluded that FonF instruction through listening activities in blended learning positively impacted the development of learners’ grammar knowledge and listening comprehension. Suggestions are provided for specific FonF instruction models in blended learning.


focus on form instruction, grammar, listening comprehension, blended learning, multimedia-assisted listening


This study was supported by Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Research Fund of 2020.


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Kang, Hee Yeon (first author), LecturerDepartment of EducationHankuk University of Foreign Studies107 Imun-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, KoreaTel: 02-2173-2342Email:

Lee, Chung Hyun (corresponding author), ProfessorDepartment of English Education, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies107 Imun-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, KoreaTel: 02-2173-2342Email: