The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics
[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 22, No. 0, pp.100-117
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print) 2586-7474 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Jan 2022
Received 10 Jan 2022 Revised 21 Feb 2022 Accepted 27 Feb 2022

Effects of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Phonological Awareness, Prosodic Feature, and Individual Differences by Korean Elementary School Students

Juhyun Jang ; Junkyu Lee
(1st author) Senior Researcher, The Institute of Foreign Language Education, Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies
(corresponding author) Professor, Graduate School of English Education, Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies

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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of explicit and implicit instruction on Korean elementary school students’ phonological awareness (Ventakagiri and Levis 2007), prosodic feature (Trofimovich and Baker 2006), and individual differences (Huang and Jun 2011). Fifty Korean young learners were divided into two groups, explicit instruction group and implicit instruction group, and they were instructed to read English words and sentences explicitly and implicitly during a seven-week treatment period. They read aloud declarative sentences in an elicited imitation task (Trofimovich and Baker 2006). From the recorded data, phonological awareness was measured by structures of phonology. Prosodic feature, i.e., speech rate was analyzed using Praat (De Jong and Wempe 2009). The results showed that the explicit instruction group significantly correlated with phonological awareness and speech rate positively. However, the implicit instruction group did not reveal progress in phonological awareness and they also noted problems regarding speech rate. These findings offer pedagogical implications of the importance of explicit instruction in L2 learning with young EFL learners.


explicit instruction, implicit instruction, phonological awareness, prosodic feature, speech rate, individual differences


This work was supported by Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Research Fund.


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