The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics

Current Issue

Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 21

[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 21, No. 0, pp.282-297
Abbreviation: KASELL
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print) 2586-7474 (Online)
Received 05 Feb 2021 Revised 19 Mar 2021 Accepted 26 Mar 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15738/kjell.21..202103.282

The Use of Self-repair as a Pre-empting Strategy in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) Interaction
Kanghee Lee
Visiting Professor, Dept. of English Language and Literature, University of Seoul, Tel: 02-739-8288 (kangheelee0919@gmail.com)


© 2021 KASELL All rights reserved
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The present paper aims to investigate the use of self-repair as a pre-empting action in ELF, and the focus of the study is to identify turn-organisational factors that trigger self-repair and how speakers perform their repair to resolve potential trouble source. The data are based on naturally occurring ELF conversations among international students in the UK university, and the Conversation Analysis (CA) approach provides the framework for the transcription and analysis of the data. The findings reveal that the participants employ self-repair practices when interlocutors produce overlapping talk or minimal responses. Although there is no explicit sign of non-comprehension or communicative breakdown, the speakers continue to monitor, detect, and respond to interlocutors’ reaction and adapt their speech patterns to communicative situations through self-repair actions. The ELF speakers engage in diverse clarification and self-repair practices by repeating, modifying, and expanding what they have said, and self-repair in the data is not confined to a narrow scope of lexical replacement at the word or phrase levels but used to introduce commentary, background knowledge, and justification of claim at the clausal level of modification. Self-repair practice in ELF shows a cooperative and proactive nature in ELF, which allows the discourse to proceed and secure the degree of shared understanding.


Keywords: self-repair, English as a lingua franca (ELF), mutual understanding, explicitness, pre-empting strategy, overlap, minimal response, announced self-rephrase marker

References
1. Björkman, B. 2011. English as a lingua franca in higher education: Implications for EAP. Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE) 22, 79-100.
2. Cogo, A. and M. Dewey. 2012. Analysing English as a Lingua Franca: A Corpus-Driven Investigation. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
3. Cogo, A. and M. L. Pitzl. 2016. Pre-empting and signalling non-understanding in ELF. ELT Journal 70(3), 339-345.
4. Dörnyei, Z. and M. L. Scott. 1997. Communication strategies in a second language: Definitions and taxonomies. Language learning 47(1), 173-210.
5. Fernández-Polo, F. J. 2014. The role of I mean in conference presentations by ELF speakers. English for Specific Purposes 34, 58-67.
6. Fox, B. A. and R. Jasperson. 1995. A syntactic exploration of repair in English conversation. In P. Davis, ed., Descriptive and Theoretical Modes in Alternative Linguistics, 77-134. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
7. Fox, B. A., T. Benjamin and H. Mazeland, H. 2013. Conversation analysis and repair organization: Overview. In C. Chapelle, ed., The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, 1-3. London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
8. Franceschi, V. 2019. Enhancing explicitness in BELF interactions: Self-initiated communication strategies in the workplace. Iperstoria 13, 59-71.
9. Jenkins, J. 2011. Accommodating (to) ELF in the international university. Journal of Pragmatics 43(4), 926-936.
10. Jenkins, J., A. Cogo and M. Dewey. 2011. Review of developments in research into English as a lingua franca. Language teaching 44(3), 281-315.
11. Kalocsai, K. 2011. The show of interpersonal involvement and the building of rapport in an ELF community of practice. In A. Archibald, A. Cogo and J. Jenkins, eds., Latest Trends in English as a Lingua Franca Research, 113-138. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
12. Kaur, J. 2009. Pre-empting problems of understanding in English as a lingua franca. In A. Mauranen and E. Ranta, eds., English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, 107-125. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
13. Kaur, J. 2011. Raising explicitness through self-repair in English as a lingua franca. Journal of Pragmatics 43(11), 2704-2715.
14. Kaur, J. 2012. Saying it again: Enhancing clarity in English as a lingua franca (ELF) talk through self-repetition. Text & Talk 32(5), 593-613.
15. Kaur, J. 2017. Ambiguity related misunderstanding and clarity enhancing practices in ELF communication. Intercultural Pragmatics 14(1), 25-47.
16. Kaur, J. 2020. Other-correction in next position: The case of lexical replacement in ELF interactions in an academic setting. Journal of Pragmatics 169, 1-12.
17. Konakahara, M. 2015. An analysis overlapping questions in casual ELF conversation: Cooperative or competitive contribution. Journal of Pragmatics 84, 37-53.
18. Lee, K. 2020. Why do we overlap each other?: Collaborative overlapping talk in English as a lingua franca (ELF) communication. English Language and Linguistics 20, 613-641.
19. Lichtkoppler, J. 2007. ‘Male. Male.’―‘Male?’―‘The sex is male.’ The role of repetition in English as a lingua franca conversations. Vienna English Working Papers 16(1), 39-65.
20. Marx, S. and J. M. Swales. 2005. Announcements of self-repair: ‘All I’m trying to say is, you’re under an illusion.’. Retrieved from www.lsa.umich.edu/eli/micase/kibbitzer.htm
21. Mauranen, A. 2006. Signaling and preventing misunderstanding in English as lingua franca communication. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 177, 123-150.
22. Mauranen, A. 2007. Hybrid voices: English as the lingua franca of academics. In K. Fløttum, ed. Language and Discipline Perspectives on Academic Discourse, 244-259. London: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
23. Mauranen, A. 2012. Exploring ELF: Academic English Shaped by Non-native Speakers. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
24. Mok, K. H., W. Xiong, G. Ke and J. O. W. Cheung. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on international higher education and student mobility: Student perspectives from mainland China and Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Research 105, 1-11.
25. Önen, S. and D. İnal. 2019. A corpus-driven analysis of explicitness in English as lingua franca. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching 8(3), 73-83.
26. Pietikäinen, K. S. 2018. Misunderstandings and ensuring understanding in private ELF talk. Applied Linguistics 39(2), 188-212.
27. Rieger, C. L. 2003. Repetitions as self-repair strategies in English and German conversations. Journal of Pragmatics 35(1), 47-69.
28. Schegloff, E. A. 2000. When ‘others’ initiate repair. Applied linguistics 21(2), 205-243.
29. Schegloff, E. A., G. Jefferson and H. Sacks. 1977. The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language 53(2), 361-382.
30. Seedhouse, P. 2005. Conversation analysis and language learning. Language Teaching 38(4), 165-187.
31. Tree, J. E. F. and J. C. Schrock. 2002. Basic meanings of you know and I mean. Journal of Pragmatics 34(6), 727-747.
32. Tyler, A. 1994. The role of repetition in perceptions of discourse coherence. Journal of Pragmatics 21(6), 671-688.
33. Watterson, M. 2008. Repair of non‐understanding in English in international communication. World Englishes 27(3‐4), 378-406.
34. Wolfartsberger, A. 2015. Parties, persons, and one-at-a-time: conversation analysis and ELF. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca 4(2), 253-282.