The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics

Current Issue

Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 21

[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 21, No. 0, pp.298-323
Abbreviation: KASELL
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print) 2586-7474 (Online)
Received 15 Feb 2021 Revised 09 Mar 2021 Accepted 16 Mar 2021

대학 영어 교수자의 비자발적인 전면적 온라인 교육 경험에 대한 탐색 연구
오선주 ; 전지현

An exploratory study on college professors’ nonvoluntary on-line-only teaching
Seon Ju Oh ; Jihyeon Jeon
(1st author) Graduate Student, Ewha Womans University (
(corresponding author) Professor, Ewha Womans University, Tel: 02-3277-3557 (

© 2021 KASELL All rights reserved
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, domestic universities have been forced to become a vast experimental ground for using technology for online classes. Despite the decades’ research on the use of technology in the field of English education, these online classes, which were suddenly and involuntarily administered to both teachers and learners, puzzled everyone. Considering a crisis can work as an opportunity, this unfamiliar non-face-to-face situation can be an opportunity to look at the teachers’ response to the crisis more clearly than the usual face-to-face situation. This study explored the experience of the college instructors, facing unprecedented challenges. In-depth interviews were conducted for four university professors who managed on-line-only English classes during the pandemic in 2020, asking the difficulties, emotions, solutions, and any changes while they were facing challenges this time. All interviews were recorded and transcribed to generate initial codes for each participant. The concepts with similar attributes were categorized through the process of integrating and reducing the codes. As a result, the challenges experienced by the participants were broadly categorized into two levels—individual and institutional. Participants’ emotions along with the obstacles they perceived; the ways they dealt with those obstacles; and any internal or external changes were further explored. The implications are discussed based on these results.

Keywords: on-line teaching, English teacher emotions, college instructors, COVID-19

1. 김남희(Kim, N.). 2019. 사이버대학생의 영어 학습 동기와 탈동기화 연구(A study on English learning motivation and demotivation of cyber university students). ≪한국콘텐츠학회 논문지≫(Jounal of the Korean Contents Association) 19(1), 129-140.
2. 김주혜, 김영우, 배주경, 이의길(Kim, J., Y. Kim, J.-K. Pae and E. Lee). 2012. 영어과 사이버가정학습 콘텐츠 개발 사례연구(A case study on English content development in cyber home learning: Focusing on the 5th grade of elementary school). ≪영어어문교육≫ (English Language and Literature Teaching) 18(4), 305-337.
3. 김주혜(Kim, J.). 2007. 이러닝 구성요소에 근거한 영어 학습자의 정서적 측면 연구: 불안감을 중심으로(EFL learners’ anxiety as an affective focus in the study of e-learning). ≪영어교육연구≫(English Language Teaching) 19(2), 183-213.
4. 김주혜(Kim, J.). 2012. 이러닝 영어 교수자의 역할 및 교수지원체제 개발연구(Role of English teachers and instructional support system in an e-learning environment). ≪언어과학연구≫ (The Journal of Linguistic Science) 63, 89-124.
5. 김태영, 김은주, 김혜영(Kim, T.-Y., E. J. Kim and H. Kim). 2011. 온-오프라인 결합 교양영어 수강 대학생들의 학습동기 유형과 변화(Motivational types and transitions in students taking on-offline blended college English program). ≪현대영어교육≫(Modern English Education) 12(1), 126-156.
6. 김태영(Kim, T.-Y.). 2018. 영어 교사의 교수 동기, 탈동기, 감정 노동: 학술지 논문을 중심으로 한 주제별 분석(English teacher’s teaching motivation, demotivation, and emotion labor: A thematic analysis focusing on journal articles). ≪영어영문학연구≫(Studies in English Language & Literature) 44(3), 221-254.
7. 김현숙, 박은영(Kim, H.-S. and E.-Y. Park). 2011. 사이버대학 관광영어 강좌의 학습자 요구분석과 수업설계(Needs analysis and class design for online tourism English instruction). ≪영어어문교육≫(English Language and Literature Teaching) 17(2), 115-137.
8. 김희진, 곽정아(Kim, H. J. and J. Kwak). 2013. 이러닝 영어학습에서 페이스북을 활용한 보충학습 교수-학습 설계 및 효과성 연구(The development of a supplementary Facebook learning model at a cyber university). ≪영어어문교육≫(English Language and Literature Teaching) 19(4), 237-260.
9. 김희진, 이현구(Kim, H. J. and H.-G. Lee). 2011. 효과적인 블렌디드 러닝 수업운영 방식 연구(A study of effective blended learning method at an offline-based university). ≪영어교과교육≫(Journal of the Korea English Education Society) 10(2), 85-114.
10. 김희진, 허광(Kim, H. J. and K. Hur). 2016. 사이버대학 영어 수업에서 스마트 앱을 활용한 혼합 교수, 학습 방안 설계와 효과성 비교(A comparative study of the effects of implementing three different smartphone applications for English classes at a cyber university, with special reference to the students’ affective domains and learning attainment). ≪멀티미디어언어교육≫(Multimedia Assisted Language Learning) 19(1), 86-113.
11. 김희진(Kim, H. J.) 2018. 스마트 러닝을 혼합한 이러닝 영어 교육의 성취도 및 실재감 분석(An analysis of achievement and teaching presence in a blended learning environment: Smart learning at an online university). ≪학습자중심교과교육연구≫(Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction) 18(8), 755-779.
12. 김희진(Kim, H. J.). 2014. 자기주도적 학습 능력 함양을 위한 사이버대학 교수학습설계: e-PBL기반 “직무영어”를 중심으로(Teaching-learning methods of e-PBL based course for enhancing self-directed learning: Focusing on business English at cyber universities). ≪외국어교육연구≫(Studies in Foreign Language Education) 28(2), 407-428.
13. 도미나, 김정렬(Do, M.-N. and J.-R. Kim). 2019. 테크놀로지를 활용한 영어교육연구의 통시적 분석(A diachronic analysis of researches on technology enhanced English education). ≪학습자중심교과교육연구≫(Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction) 19(9), 1241-1266.
14. 도재우(Do, J.-W.). 2020. 면대면 수업의 온라인 수업 전환과정에서 발생하는 설계 장애물에 대한 탐색(An investigation of design constraints in the process of converting face-to-face course into online course). ≪교육문화연구≫(Journal of Education & Culture) 26(2), 153-173.
15. 동아닷컴(Dong A. Com). 2020, April 23. 교수는 더 오래 준비하는데...학생들은 온라인 강의, 전달력 떨어져(Professors spending more students being dissatisfied with on-line classes). Retrieved from
16. 박선호, 최희경(Park, S. H. and H. Choi). 2020. 코로나19 시대의 비대면 온라인 교육에 대한 초등영어교사들의 목소리(Voices of elementary English teachers on non-face-to-face online education in the era of COVID-19). ≪문화교류와 다문화교육≫(Cultural Exchange and Multicultural Education) 9(4), 273-295.
17. 박은경(Park, E.). 2020. 코로나 19 확산에 따른 온라인 교양영어 수업에서 학생들이 느끼는 불안감에 대한 인식 조사(Perception of learner anxiety towards online college English classes during COVID-19). ≪멀티미디어언어교육≫(Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning) 23(3), 320-338.
18. 신지원, 김태영(Shin, J. and T.-Y. Kim). 2018. 우리나라 영어 사교육 현장에 내재된 영어 식민주의: 초등 어학원의 사례(English colonialism inherent in South Korean private English education: A case of elementary English language institute). ≪학습자중심교과교육연구≫(Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction), 18(4), 143-167.
19. 이동주, 김미숙(Lee, D. J. and M. Kim). 2020. 코로나19 상황에서의 대학 온라인 원격교육 실태와 개선 방안(University students’ perceptions on the practices of online learning in the COVID-19 situation and future directions). ≪멀티미디어언어교육≫(Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning) 23(3), 359-377.
20. 이승환(Lee, S.). 2020, June 26. 필수가 된 원격수업, 개선해야 정착한다(Must-do on-line classes, must improve to survive). e-대학저널(e-Deahak Journal) Retrieved from
21. 이정화, 김주혜, 조수근(Lee, J.-H., J.-H. Kim and S.-K. Cho). 2010. 이러닝 영어회화 수업의 상호작용적 교수-학습 전략(A study of interactive teaching-learning strategies of e-learning English conversation courses). ≪응용언어학≫(Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics) 26(2), 51-83.
22. 이현주(Lee, H.-J.). 2010. Vygotsky의 사회문화이론(Sociocultural Theory)과 테크놀로지 매개(Technology-mediated)의 영어교육(Vygotskian sociocultural theory and technology-mediated English learning). ≪교육연구≫(Educational Research) 47, 23-55.
23. 이화여자대학교 교육혁신센터(Ewha Womans University Office of Education Innovation). 2020. 1학기 원격수업에 대한 설문 조사 결과(Survey Results on On-line Classes in Spring Semester).
24. 임선영, 김성연(Lim, S. Y. and S.-Y. Kim). 2004. 교양영어 컨텐츠 개발을 위한 사이버대학 학습자 요구 분석(A needs analysis for developing English content for cyber university learners). ≪응용언어학≫(Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics) 20(1), 155-178.
25. 정바울, 장유정(Chung, B. and Y. Jang) 2020. Covid-19에 따른 디지털 기술의 부상과 교사 직무 변화에 대한 탐색적 연구(An exploratory study on digital technologies and teachers’ work in the Post Pandemic age). ≪교육정치학연구≫(The Journal of Politics of Education) 27(4), 125-144.
26. 조순정(Cho, S. J.). 2015. 사이버대학 영어청취 교과목 콘텐츠 개선을 위한 학습자 요구조사(A need analysis for improving English listening content in cyber university). ≪교양교육연구≫ (Korean Journal of General Education) 9(3), 215-248.
27. Acheson, K., J. Taylor and K. Luna. 2016. The burnout spiral: The emotion labor of five rural U.S. foreign language teachers. The Modern Language Journal 100, 522-537.
28. Bueno-Alastuey, M. C. 2011. Perceived benefits and drawbacks of synchronous voice-based computer-mediated communication in the foreign language classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning 24(5), 419-432.
29. Chen, J. 2016. Understanding teacher emotions: The development of teacher emotion inventory. Teaching and Teacher Education 55, 68-77.
30. Cowie, N. 2011. Emotions that experienced English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers feel about their students, their colleague and their work. Teaching and Teacher Education 27(1), 235-242.
31. Dörnyei, Z. 2014. Researching complex dynamics systems: ‘Retrodictive qualitative modeling’ in the language classroom. Language Teaching 47(1), 80-91.
32. Escobar-Fandiño, F. G. and A. J. Silva-Valendia. 2020. How an online tutor motivates e-learning English. Haliyon 6(8).
33. Escobar-Fandiño, F. G., L. D. Munoz and A. J. Silva-Velandia. 2019. Motivation and e-learning English as a foreign language: A qualitative study. Heliyon 5(9).
34. Hiver, P. 2015. Once burned, twice shy: The dynamic development of system immunity in language teachers. In Z. Dörnyei, P. D. MacIntyre and A. Henry, eds., Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning, 214-237. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
35. Hiver, P. 2017. Tracing the signature dynamics of language teacher immunity: A retrodictive qualitative modeling study. The Modern Language Journal 101(4), 669-690.
36. Hiver, P. and Z. Dörnyei, Z. 2017. Language teacher immunity: A double-edged sword. Applied Linguistics 38, 405-423.
37. Hochschild, A. R. 1983. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
38. Isenbargar, L. and M. Zembylas. 2006. The emotional labour of caring in teaching. Teaching & Teacher Education 22, 120-134.
39. Jang, Y.-I. 2016. The Changing Effects of the L2 Motivational Self System on Actual Learning Behavior and Speaking Performance in the EFL Classroom. Doctoral dissertation, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies. Graduate School, Seoul, Korea. Retrieved from RISS.
40. Jung, Y., Y. Kim, H. Lee, R. Cathey, J. Carver and S. Skalicky. 2017. Learner perception of multimodal synchronous computer-mediated communication in foreign language classrooms. Language Teaching Research 23(3), 287-309.
41. Kim, Y. and T.-Y. Kim. 2018. Korean EFL teachers’ emotional labor: An exploratory study. English Language Teaching 30(2), 21-41.
42. King, J. 2015. “It’s time, put on the smile, it’s time!”: The emotional labour of second language teaching within a Japanese university. In C. Gknonou, D. Tatzl and S. Mercer, eds., New directions in language learning psychology, 97-112. New York: Springer.
43. Larsen-Freeman, D. 1997. Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics 18, 141-165.
44. Larsen-Freeman, D. and L. Cameron. 2008. Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
45. Noughabi, M. A., S. M. R. Amirian, S. M. R. Adel and G. Zareian. 2020. The association of experienced in-service EFL teachers’ immunity with engagement, emotions, and autonomy. Current Psychology.
46. Rahmati, T., K. Sadeghi and F. Ghaderi. 2019. English as a foreign language teacher immunity: An integrated reflective practice. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research 7(3), 91-107.
47. Song, J. 2018. Critical approaches to emotions of non-native English speaking teachers. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics 41(4), 453-467.
48. Stockwell, G. and H. Reinders. 2019. Technology, motivation and autonomy, and teacher psychology in language learning: Exploring the myths and possibilities. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 39, 40-51.
49. Sun, Y. Y. and F. Gao. 2020. An investigation of the influence of intrinsic motivation on students’ intention to use mobile devices in language learning. Educational Technology Research and Development 68, 1181-1198.
50. World Health Organization. 2020, September 30. A global pandemic requires a world effort to end it-none of us will be safe until everyone is safe. Retrieved from