The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics

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Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 21

[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 21, No. 0, pp.856-869
Abbreviation: KASELL
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print) 2586-7474 (Online)
Received 18 Jul 2021 Revised 20 Sep 2021 Accepted 25 Sep 2021

Influence of Student Engagement on L2 Writing of Filipino ESL Students: The Moderating Role of Academic Mindsets
Edward Jay M. Quinto ; John Christopher D. Castillo ; Rosana D. Lucero
(corresponding author) Associate Professor, School of Social Sciences and Education, Mapúa University, Manila, Philippines, Tel: +639178795806 (
Assistant Professor, School of Social Sciences and Education, Mapúa University, Manila, Philippines (
Associate Professor, School of Education, Liberal Arts, Music, and Social Work, Centro Escolar University, Manila, Philippines (

© 2021 KASELL All rights reserved
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


While there is strong empirical evidence linking engagement, achievement, and school behavior, very little is known on factors of individual differences, which influence student engagement and second language (L2) writing. In this study, the researchers hypothesized that mindset, which is a learner’s psychosocial attitude or belief that impels or inhibits academic work, intervenes between the relationship of student engagement and L2 writing. To test this, the researchers collected data from 216 ESL students in an engineering University in Manila, who accomplished two measures for student engagement and mindset and a reflective essay writing task for L2 writing. Results corroborate previous observation that cognitive engagement, psychological engagement, and growth mindset are associated with better L2 writing outcomes. With mindset as an intervening variable, the researchers found that ESL students with high engagement and a growth mindset, i.e., one’s ability can improve with right intervention and effort, had highest scores in L2 writing as well. Students with a fixed mindset, i.e., one’s ability will not improve regardless of intervention or effort, received the lowest L2 writing scores regardless of their levels of engagement. It is therefore suggested that L2 writing teachers endorse a growth mindset and promote a growth-supportive atmosphere in the ESL classroom.

Keywords: L2 writing, individual differences, student engagement, mindset, growth mindset, fixed mindset

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