The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics

Current Issue

Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 22

[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 22, No. 0, pp. 279-299
Abbreviation: KASELL
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print) 2586-7474 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Jan 2022
Received 21 Jan 2022 Revised 15 Mar 2022 Accepted 27 Mar 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15738/kjell.22..202203.279

북한 영어교육의 패러다임 전환: 코퍼스 기반 분석
이영희 ; 김태영
아주대학교
중앙대학교

The paradigm shift in English language teaching in North Korea: A corpus-assisted analysis
Younghee Cheri Lee ; Tae-Young Kim
(1st author) Teaching Professor, Dasan University College, Ajou Univ, Tel: 031-219-3053 (cheriberry@ajou.ac.kr)
(corresponding author) Professor, Dept. of English Education, Chung-Ang Univ, Tel: 02-820-5392 (tykim@cau.ac.kr)

© 2022 KASELL All rights reserved
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.
Funding Information ▼

Abstract

Over the past decades, a stream of research has witnessed that the changing sociopolitical and socioeconomic dynamics between North Korea and the outside world have triggered socioeducational changes in North Korea. Due to Kim Jong-un’s political conviction in ‘education’—with its heavy emphasis in the English language—as ‘the mother of science and technology,’ in recent years, such endeavors have become further accelerated in a structured and pragmatic manner. To date, a rising number of corpus-based studies have attempted to delineate the textual and formatting differences between English textbooks produced by Kim Jung-un’s regime and those produced by his predecessors, but not to explain how the English language input was implemented to reflect educational reform. In order to augment prior findings, therefore, the present study aims to investigate the shift in language input manifested in North Korean English textbooks, both quantity- and quality-wise. The results revealed that the textbook revisions made in the Kim Jong-un era were found to satisfy the lexical threshold (95%) of the BNC/COCA 3K core vocabulary, implying that the revised versions were thoroughly controlled with the optimum amount of language input. Regarding language input quality, Kim Jong-un’s revised textbooks held a larger portion of authentic and high-frequency 3-gram lexical bundles, which can generally be observable across the COCA, than those in the Kim Jong-il era. Based on the quantitative and qualitative enhancement of language input, implications are discussed in association with the concept of self-independence and maintenance of the Kim Jong-un regime.


Keywords: North Korea, English textbook, Kim Jong-un, language input, quantity, quality, t oken coverage, corpus, BNC/COCA, social change, education in North Korea

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2021S1A5A2A01061744).


References
1. Anthony, L. 2021. AntConc Version 3.5.8 [computer software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Accessed 10 Aug 2021 at https://www.laurenceanthony.net/software
2. Bae, J. 2015. A Study of the English Language Education of North Korea in the 2000s. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Korean Studies, Seoul, Korea.
3. Cho, J.-A., K.-D. Lee, H.-J. Kang and C.-K. Jung. 2015. The Education Policy, Curricula, and Textbooks of North Korea in Kim Jong-un’s Era. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification.
4. Cobb, T. 2021. Vocab Stats v.8.3 [computer program]. Accessed 15 Aug 2021 at https://www.lextutor.ca/stats
5. Conrad, S. and D. Biber. 2005. The frequency and use of lexical bundles in conversation and academic prose. Lexicographica 20, 56-71.
6. Cummingsworth, A. 1995. Choosing Your Coursebook. Oxford: Heinemann.
7. Gardner, D. 2013. Exploring Vocabulary: Language in Action. New York: Routledge.
8. Goh, G.–Y. 2016. Exploring the relationship between the amount of reading and incidental vocabulary learning. English Language and Linguistics 22(2), 19-41.
9. Goh, G. -Y. and Y. C. Lee. 2016. A corpus-based study of translation universals in English translations of Korean newspaper texts. Cross-Cultural Studies 45, 109-143.
10. Hong, J.-S. and J.-R. Kim. 2019. A diachronic analysis of the English textbooks along the North Korean ruling authorities. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 19(26), 599-619.
11. Hulstijn, J. H. 2013. Incidental learning in second language acquisition. In C. A. Chapelle, ed., The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, 2632-2637. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
12. Hutchinson, T. and A. Waters. 1987. English for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
13. Joo, Y. and C.-J. Uhm. 2019. Content analysis of reading passages of North Korean high school English textbooks in the Kim Jong-un era. The Linguistic Association of Korea Journal 27(4), 21-36.
14. Kachru, B. 1991. World Englishes: Approaches, issues, and resources. Language Teaching 25, 1-14.
15. Kang, H.-S. 2020. Changes in English language policy in Kim Jong-un’s North Korea. English Today 36(1), 30-36.
16. Kaplan, R. and R. Jr. Baldauf. 2005. Language-in-education policy and planning. In E. Hinkel, ed., Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, 1013-1034. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
17. Kim, D.-K. and H.-C. Kim. 2001. The History of North Korea’s Education. Seoul: Kyoyookbook.
18. Kim, E.-J. 2021. Changes in North Korea’s higher education and education management system during the Kim Jong Un era. Asia Pacific Journal of Education 31(2), 281-298.
19. Kim, H.-C. 1990. Secondary education. In H.-C. Kim, ed., North Korea’s Education, 256-317. Seoul: Eulyoo Publishing.
20. Kim, J.-R. 2021. An analysis of situations and communicative functions in the dialogues of North Korean middle school English textbooks. Journal of the Korea English Education Society 20(2), 75-94.
21. Kim, J.-R. and J. Kim. 2017. Corpus construction for understanding the North Korean English textbooks. The Journal of Mirae English Language and Literature 22(2), 207-232.
22. Kim, J.-R. and S.-Y. Hwang 2018. An inter-Korean English textbook vocabulary analysis of gifted vs. general middle schools, Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology 8(6), 223-231.
23. KINU. 2021. Online Series CO21-04: Analysis on North Korea’s 4th Plenary Meeting of the 8th Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification.
24. KIUE. 2019. Understanding North Korea. Seoul: National Institute for Unification Education.
25. KIUE. 2020. Understanding North Korea. Seoul: National Institute for Unification Education.
26. KIUE. 2021. Understanding North Korea. Seoul: National Institute for Unification Education.
27. Laufer, B. 1989. What percentage of text-lexis is essential for comprehension? In C. Lauren and M. Nordman, eds., Special Language: From Human Thinking to Thinking Machines, 316-323. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
28. Laufer, B. 1992. How much lexis is necessary for reading comprehension? In P. J. L. Arnaud and H. Bejoing, eds., Vocabulary and Applied Linguistics, 126-132. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
29. Lee, B.-M., H.-K. Yang and O.-H. Kwon. 2005. The reality of North Korea’s English education. Foreign Languages Education 12(4), 267–297.
30. Lee, K.-A. 2020. Analysis of changes in English textbooks in North Korea in the Kim Jong-un era. Journal of Peace and Unification 10(3), 83-110.
31. Lee, S. 2014. A critical review of research on North Korean English textbooks: Focusing on the studies published in South Korea during 1994-2013. The Journal of Foreign Studies 28, 83-109.
32. Lee, Y. C. 2018. The hallmarks of L2 writing viewed through the prism of translation universals. Linguistic Research 35, 171-205.
33. Lee, Y. C. 2019. Spotting non-nativeness in L2 texts: A statistical approach to translationese. Studies in English Language and Literature 45(1), 367-388.
34. Lee, Y. C. 2021a. Function words as markers of translationese: A corpus-based approach to mental translation in second language writing. Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics 21, 261-281.
35. Lee, Y. C. 2021b. The predictability of receptive vocabulary size to assess college students’ TOEIC® readiness. English Language and Linguistics 27, 151-176.
36. Leow, R. P. and L. Cerezo. 2016. Deconstructing the “I” and “SLA” in ISLA: One curricular approach. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 6, 43-63.
37. Leow, R. P. and C. C. Zamora. 2017. Intentional and incidental L2 learning, In S. Loewen and M. Sato, eds., The Routledge Handbook of Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 33-49. London: Routledge.
38. Lewis, M. 1993. The Lexical Approach. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.
39. Nation, I. S. P. 2001. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
40. Nation, I. S. P. 2008. Teaching Vocabulary: Strategies and Techniques. Boston: Heinle.
41. NK Chosun. 2017. English is the standard for North Korean students’ self-esteem. Accessed 25 Aug 2021 at http://nk.chosun.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=165764
42. Oh, S. and T.-Y. Kim. 2020. A comparison of high school English textbooks between pre- and post-2013 Revised Curriculum in North Korea. Modern English Education 21(1), 43-55.
43. Park, E. S. and Y. K. Shin. 2016. Goals and contents of English language teaching in North Korea: Insights from high school textbooks. Modern English Education 17(2), 91-109.
44. Schmitt, N. 1997. Vocabulary Learning Strategies. In D. N. Schmitt and M. McCarthy, eds., Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy, 199-227. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
45. Scott, M. 2016. Wordsmith Tools 7.0. Liverpool: Lexical Analysis Software.
46. Sheldon, L. E. 1988. Evaluating ELT textbooks and materials. ELT Journal 42(4), 237-246.
47. Song, J.-J. 2002. The Juche ideology: English in North Korea. English Today, 18(1), 47-56.
48. Tomlinson, B. 1998. Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
49. Wee, H.-S. 2018. How Kim Jong–un wants to develop his economy and secure his regime. CNBC News.
50. Yonhap News. 2016. British Council to educate 4,000 North Korean English teachers for 15 years. Accessed 25 Aug 2021 at https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20210120168500504
51. Yoo, H.-Y. and Kim, J.-R. 2018. A comparison of structural organization of English textbooks between pre and post North Korean 2013 Curriculum Revision. Journal of the Korea Contents Association 18(7), 412-421.