The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics

Current Issue

Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 22

[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 22, No. 0, pp. 355-376
Abbreviation: KASELL
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print) 2586-7474 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Jan 2022
Received 12 Mar 2022 Revised 15 Apr 2022 Accepted 27 Apr 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15738/kjell.22..202204.355

A Study on the Use of AI-based Learning Programs by EFL Students with Different Types of Teacher Support
Hea-Suk Kim ; Na-Young Kim ; Yoonjung Cha
(1st author) Professor, Institute for General Education, Seoul Women’s Univ. (shskim@swu.ac.kr)
(corresponding author) Professor, Dept. of General Education, Sehan Univ. (nykim@sehan.ac.kr)
(corresponding author) Professor, Peace and Liberal Arts College, Hanshin Univ. (yjcha@hs.ac.kr)


© 2022 KASELL All rights reserved
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of teacher support and its role on students’ self-regulated learning in an online English learning environment. One hundred and twenty-one participants registered for online TOEIC classes during the fall semester of 2021. Students in the classes were required to use the AI-based TOEIC program for the whole semester. They were randomly divided into three different teacher support groups: cognitive, emotional, and autonomy. To examine how each type of teacher support can be effective for online TOEIC classes, participants took pre- and post-tests that consisted of vocabulary and grammar. Also, students conducted two questionnaires including self-regulated learning and their perceptions toward using the online program. Regarding the pre- and post-tests, the findings indicated that significant differences were found in all teacher support groups for vocabulary, but mixed results were found in terms of grammar. In fact, there was no significant difference among the three teacher support groups. In terms of self-regulated learning, there were significant differences between the pre- and post-questionnaires for both the cognitive and autonomy groups, but not for the emotional support group. Furthermore, no significant differences were discovered based on the different types of teacher support provided. However, when it came to students’ perceptions of an AI-based online English learning program, there were significant differences in all items across the three teacher support groups. The findings are used to suggest pedagogical implications and future research.


Keywords: teacher support, cognitive, emotional, autonomy, AI-based TOEIC program, online learning, perception, grammar, vocabulary

References
1. Caplan, G. 1974. Support Systems and Community Mental Health: Lectures on Concept Development. Behavioral Publications.
2. Chai, X. Y. and S. Y. Gong. 2013. The development of questionnaire on perceived mathematics teacher support for middle school students. Studies of Psychology and Behavior 11(4), 511-517.
3. Dincer, A., S. Yesilyurt and M. Takkac. 2012. The effects of autonomy-supportive climates on EFL learner’s engagement, achievement and competence in English speaking classrooms. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 46, 3890-3894.
4. Gilfert, S. 1996. A review of TOEIC. The Internet TESL Journal 2(8), 1-8.
5. Hsu, C. C. 2018. Artificial intelligence in smart tourism: A conceptual framework. In Proceedings of The 18th International Conference on Electronic Business, 124-133. ICEB, Guilin, China, December 2-6.
6. Jones, S., A. Richards, Y. Cho and Y. J. Lee. 2018. The effect of the fourth industrial revolution on general English education: A case study of native English instructors’ perceptions at a Korean university. Korean Journal of General Education 12(2), 169-197.
7. Kazemi, Z., A. Zarehmoghadam and H. Emami. 2016. The role of perceived teacher’s support and motivational orientation in prediction of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies in learning English. Research in English Language Pedagogy 5(1), 17-26.
8. Kiefer, S. M., K. M. Alley and C. R. Ellerbrock. 2015. Teacher and peer support for young adolescents’ motivation, engagement, and school belonging. RMLE Online 38(8), 1-18.
9. Kim, B., H. Suh, J. Heo and Y. Choi. 2020. AI-driven interface design for intelligent tutoring system improves student engagement. In Woodstock ’18: ACM Symposium on Neural Gaze Detection, June 3-5, 2018, Woodstock, NY.
10. Kim, H.-S., Y. Cha and N. Y. Kim. 2020. Students’ perspectives on pre-recorded video lectures versus video-conferencing lectures in the untact era. Journal of Research in Curriculum & Instruction 25(2), 164-178.
11. Kim, H. S., N. Y. Kim and Y. Cha. 2021. Is it beneficial to use AI chatbots to improve learners’ speaking performance?. The Joural of Asia TEFL 18(1), 161-178.
12. Kim, N.-Y. 2019. Effects of mobile phone use on aviation students’ English learning. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society 20(5), 213-221.
13. Kim, N.-Y. 2020. The effects of the use of captions on low-and high-level EFL learners’ speaking performance. Linguistic Research 37, 135-161.
14. Kim, T.-Y. 2009. The dynamics of L2 self and L2 learning motivation: A qualitative case study of Korean ESL students. English Teaching 64(3), 49-70.
15. Kusumaningrum, M. A. D. and D. R. Pertiwi. 2021. An intelligent tutoring system for learning listening TOEIC. Jurnal Berdaya Mandiri 3(1), 456-467.
16. Lam, S. F. and Y. K. Law. 2007. The roles of instructional practices and motivation in writing performance. The Journal of Experimental Education 75(2), 145-164.
17. Lei, H., Y. Cui and M. M. Chiu. 2018. The relationship between teacher support and students' academic emotions: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 8, 2288.
18. Liu, B., W. L. Zhang and J. L. Liu. 2017. Study on the effect of teacher support on online learners’ learning engagement. E-Education Research 11, 63-68+80.
19. Loh, H., D. Shin, S. Lee, J. Baek, C. Hwang, Y. Lee, ... and Y. Choi. 2021. Recommendation for Effective Standardized Exam Preparation. In LAK21: 11th International Learning Analytics and Knowledge Conference, 397-404.
20. Luan, L., J.-C. Hong, M. Cao, Y. Dong and X. Hou. 2020. Exploring the role of online EFL learners’ perceived social support in their learning engagement: A structural equation model. Interactive Learning Environments, Advance Online Publication, 1-12.
21. Malecki, C. K. and M. K. Demary. 2002. Measuring perceived social support: Development of the child and adolescent social support scale (CASSS). Psychology in the Schools 39(1), 1-18.
22. Mitchell, S. and J. DellaMattera. 2011. Teacher support and student’s self-efficacy beliefs. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education 5(2), 24-35.
23. Obari, H. 2020. The impact of AI on teaching EFL in Japan. The Aoyama Journal of Economics 71(4), 29-40.
24. Obari, H. and S. Lambacher. 2019. Improving the English skills of native Japanese using artificial intelligence in a blended learning program. In F. Meunier, J. Van de Vyver, L. Bradley and S. Thouësny, eds., CALL and Complexity: Short Papers from EUROCALL 2019, 327-333. Research-publishing.net.
25. Obari, H., S. Lambacher and H. Kikuchi. 2020. The impact of using AI and VR with blended learning on English as a foreign language teaching. In K.-M. Frederiksen, S. Larsen, L. Bradley and S. Thouësny, eds., CALL for Widening Participation: Short Papers from EUROCALL 2020, 253-258. Research-publishing.net.
26. Park, J. H. and N. M. Shin. 2017. Students’ perceptions of artificial intelligence technology and artificial intelligence teachers. The Journal of Korean Teacher Education 34(2), 169-192.
27. Persico, D. and K. Steffens. (2017). Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments. In E. Duval, M. Sharples and R. Sutherland, eds., Technology Enhanced Learning, 115-126. Springer, Cham.
28. Piechurska-Kuciel, E. 2011. Perceived teacher support and language anxiety in Polish secondary school EFL learners. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 1(1), 83-100.
29. Psotka, J., L. D. Massey and S. A. Mutter. Eds., 1988. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Lessons Learned. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
30. Rajuan, M., D. Beijaard and N. Verloop. 2008. Student teachers’ perceptions of their mentors as internal triggers for learning. Teaching Education 19(4), 279-292.
31. Richland, L. E., K. N. Begolli, N. Simms, R. R. Frausel and E. A. Lyons. 2016. Supporting mathematical discussions: The roles of comparison and cognitive load. Educational Psychology Review 29(1), 41-53.
32. Ryu, J. 2017. The effects of digital textbooks on college EFL learners’ self-regulated learning. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning 20(4), 99-126.
33. Skinner, E. A. and M. J. Belmont. 1993 . Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology 85(4), 571-581.
34. Skinner, E., C. Furrer, G. Marchand and T. Kindermann. 2008. Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journal of Educational Psychology 100(4), 765-781.
35. Selwyn, N. 2018. Six reasons Artificial Intelligence technology will never take over from human teachers. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/blog/?p=2948
36. Song, S.-Y. 2017. The prospect and ethical reflection of relationship between AI robots and human beings. The Journal of English Cultural Studies 10(3), 61-83.
37. Titsworth, S., M. M. Quinlan and J. P. Mazer. 2010. Emotion in teaching and learning: Development and validation of the classroom emotions scale. Communication Education 59(4), 431-452.
38. Turan, Z. and O. Demirel. 2010. The relationship between self-regulated learning skills and achievement: A case from hacettepe university medical school. H. U. Journal of Education 38, 279-291.
39. Wellborn, J. G. and J. P. Connell. 1987. Manual for the Rochester Assessment Package for Schools. University of Rochester.
40. Wentzel, K. R., A. Battle, S. L. Russell and L. B. Looney. 2010. Social supports from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology 35(3), 193-202.
41. Yang, T. and N. Y. Kim. 2021. Effects of teacher support on Chinese EFL university students’ listening ability in a blended learning environment. Journal of Digital Convergence 19(12), 63-77.