The Korean Association for the Study of English Language and Linguistics

Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 22

[ Article ]
Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics - Vol. 22, No. 0, pp. 377-395
Abbreviation: KASELL
ISSN: 1598-1398 (Print) 2586-7474 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Jan 2022
Received 12 Mar 2022 Revised 15 Apr 2022 Accepted 27 Apr 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15738/kjell.22..202204.377

Exploring Parental Satisfaction with Public English Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea
In Chull Jang ; Hyunah Kim ; Lee Jin Choi
(1st author) Professor, Dept. of English Education, Daegu Nat’l Univ. of Education, Tel: 053) 620-1424 (icjang@dnue.ac.kr)
(co-author) Ph.D. candidate, Dept. of Applied Psychology and Human Development, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Univ. of Toronto (tohyunah.kim@mail.utoronto.ca)
(corresponding author) Professor, Dept. of English Education, Hongik Univ. (choileejin@hongik.ac.kr)


© 2022 KASELL All rights reserved
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study explored South Korean parents’ satisfaction with public English education during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic and its sudden educational disruption have posed unprecedented challenges for teachers, students, school administrators, and parents to ensure the continuity of quality education for all. Using a nationwide survey and semi-structured interview methods, this study examined the personal and social factors that affected parental satisfaction with emergency public English education in South Korea during the COVID-19 crisis. The survey results showed that while parental dissatisfaction was a shared psychological response across social class and gender, parents were more satisfied with in-person instruction and synchronous learning. The interviews revealed that their dissatisfaction with online, especially asynchronous learning, led to a low sense of self-efficacy over the management of children’s education and growing concerns over the English divide. This research highlights the multidimensionality of parental satisfaction in the social crisis as it involves individual responses and beliefs as well as contingent public health and educational policies.


Keywords: COVID-19, parental satisfaction, remote learning, public education, English education

References
1. Amatea, E. S., B. Cholewa and K. A. Mixon. 2012. Influencing preservice teachers’ attitudes about working with low-income and/or ethnic minority families. Urban Education 47, 801-834.
2. Antony-Newman, M. 2019. Parental involvement of immigrant parents: A meta-synthesis. Educational Review 71(3), 362-381.
3. Bae, S. and J. S-Y. Park. 2020. Investing in the future: Korean early English education as neoliberal management of youth. Multilingua 39(3), 277-297.
4. Baek, B-B. 2020. Korona19wa Gyoyuk: Ollain GyoyugeulJungsimeuro [COVID-19 and Education: Implementing Emergency Online Education]. Suwon: Gyeonggi Institute of Education.
5. Bandura, A. 1995. Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies. In A. Bandura, ed., Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies, 1-45. New York: Cambridge University Press.
6. Bokayev, B., Z. Torebekova, Z. Davletbayeva and F. Zhakypova. 2021. Distance learning in Kazakhstan: Estimating parents’ satisfaction of educational quality during the coronavirus. Technology, Pedagogy and Education 30(1), 27-39.
7. Chen, C. 2021. Emergency Remote Teaching and Beyond: Voices from World Language Teachers and Researchers. Cham: Springer.
8. Choi, L. J. (2021). ‘English is always proportional to one’s wealth’: English, English language education, and social reproduction in South Korea. Multilingua 40(1), 87-106.
9. Choi, L. J. and I. C. Jang. (in press). South Korean parents’ perceptions of public English education under COVID-19: A survey study. The Journal of Asia TEFL.
10. Cuevas, S. 2020. From spectators to partners: The role of self-efficacy in Latina/o immigrant parents’ engagement in students’ post-secondary planning. Journal of Latinos & Education. Advance online publication.
11. Desimone, L., M. Finn-Stevenson and C. Henrich. 2000. Whole school reform in a low-income African American community: The effects of the CoZi model on teachers, parents, and students. Urban Education 35, 269-323.
12. Duchêne, A. and M. Heller. 2012. Language in Late Capitalism: Pride and Profit. New York: Routledge.
13. Financial News. 2020. Gyoyugbu, “wongyeogsueob jil gwanli naseossda” ... hagbumo bulman pogju [With the growing concerns among about the quality of distance learning, the Ministry of Education announces its plan to monitor and ensure the quality of distance learning]. Financial News. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from https://www.fnnews.com/news/202009151510490021
14. Friedman, B. A., P. E. Bobrowski and D. Markow. 2007. Predictors of parents’ satisfaction with their children’s school. Journal of Educational Administration 45(3), 278-288.
15. Gibbons, R. G. and S. Silva. 2011. Blended learning environments. In P. Rogers, G. Berg, J. Boettcher, C. Howard, L. Justice and K. Schenk, eds., Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, 172-179. Hershey: Information Science Reference.
16. Graham, C. R. 2006. Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C. J. Bonk and C. R. Graham, eds., The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs, 3-21. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
17. Gwak, S. 2020. Hakseupji gyosado ireoken anhae, hakbumodeul “wongyeoksueop anira bangchi” [Home-visit private tutors don’t teach this way. Parents say “This is not online teaching. It’s the neglect of students”]. Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from https://www.chosun.com/national/education/2020/09/14/T5S2CVVE7NBE7NV5ZLVBIFHZH4/?utm_source=naver&utm_medium=original&utm_campaign=news
18. Harvey, D. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
19. Heller, M. 2010. The commodification of language. Annual Review of Anthropology 39, 101-114.
20. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. and H. M. Sandler. 1995. Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record 97(2), 310-331.
21. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. and H. M. Sandler. 1997. Why do parents become involved in their children’s education? Review of Educational Research 67(1), 3-42.
22. Kim, J. 2015. The relationship of English shadow education expense, academic achievement, and level of understanding in English class: A latent growth modeling approach. Journal of the Korea English Education Society 14(2), 197-215.
23. Kim, K. 2019. Major trends in education. In Statistics Research Institute, ed., Korean Social Trends 2019, 122-133. Daejeon: Statistics Research Institute.
24. Kim, K.-A. 2020. Korona19 Hwaksan Sigi, Bullihan Haksaengdeurui Gyeongheome Daehan Jiljeok Yeongu [A Qualitative Study on Lived Experiences of Disadvantaged Students in the COVID-19 Pandemic]. Jincheon: Korean Educational Development Institute.
25. Kim, Y.A., S. An, H. C. L. Kim and J. Kim. 2018. Meaning of parental involvement among Korean immigrant parents: A mixed-methods approach. The Journal of Educational Research 111(2), 127-138.
26. Korea Education and Research Information Service. 2020. COVID-19e Ttareun Chojungdeunghakgyo Wongyeokgyoyuk Gyeongheom Mit Insik Bunseok [The Analysis of Elementary and Middle School Students’ Experiences and Perceptions of Remote Learning during COVID-19]. Daegu: Korea Education and Research Information Service.
27. Lau, E. Y. H. and K. Lee. 2021. Parents’ views on young children’s distance learning and screen time during covid-19 class suspension in Hong Kong. Early Education and Development 32(6), 863-880.
28. Lee, M. W. 2016. ‘Gangnam style’ English ideologies: Neoliberalism, class and the parents of early study-abroad students. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 19(1), 35-50.
29. Lee, J.-Y. 2020. Korona19wa Gyoyuk: Hakgyoguseongwonui Saenghwalgwa Insigeul Jungsimeuro [COVID-19 and Education: Students, Teachers, and Parents’ Lives and Perceptions]. Suwon: Gyeonggi Institute of Education.
30. Lee, B. and J. Choi. 2020. Seoulsi Cho, Jung, Godeunghakgyo Korona 19 Daeeung Wongyeokgyoyuk Hyeonhwang josa [Implementing Remote Education as a Response to COVID-19]. Seoul: Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education
31. Lin, X. and L. Gao. 2020. Students’ sense of community and perspectives of taking synchronous and asynchronous online courses. Asian Journal of Distance Education 15(1), 169-179.
32. Lo, A., N. Abelmann, S. Kwon and S. Okazaki. 2015. South Korea’s Education Exodus: The Life and Times of Early Study Abroad. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
33. Macledo, G., A. Pirrie, G. McCluskey and M. Cullen. 2013. Parents of excluded pupils: Customers, partners, problems? Educational Review 65(4), 387-401.
34. McKight, P. E. and J. Najab. 2010. Kruskal‐Wallis test. In I. Weiner and W. E. Craighead, eds., The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (Vol. 3). John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved on December 29, 2021.
35. Ministry of Education. 2020. Responding to COVID-19: Online Classes in Korea. Sejong: Ministry of Education.
36. Ministry of Education. 2021. 2021nyeon Haksa Mit Gyoyukgwajeong Unyeong Jiwonbangan [2021 Academic Affairs and Curriculum Support Plan]. Sejong: Ministry of Education.
37. Mun, H. 2021. Wongyeoksueop haksaengeun ‘manjok’, hakbumoneun ‘bulmanjok’,”hakseupgyeokcha keojyeo” [Students are satisfied with remote learning, but parents aren’t. The learning gap is widening]. JoongAng Ilbo. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from https://news.joins.com/article/23980537
38. OECD. 2020. Combatting COVID-19's Effect on Children. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/combatting-covid-19-s-effecton-hildren-2e1f3b2f/
39. Olivos, E.M. and A. Lucero. 2020. Latino parents in dual language immersion programs: Why are they so satisfied? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23(10), 1211-1224.
40. Olmedo, A. and A. Wilkins. 2017. Governing through parents: a genealogical enquiry of education policy and the construction of neoliberal subjectivities in England. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 38(4), 573-189.
41. Olson Beal, H. and P. M. Hendry. 2012. The ironies of school choice: Empowering parents and reconceptualizing public education. American Journal of Education 18(4), 521-550.
42. Park, J-K. 2009. ‘English fever’ in South Korea: its history and symptoms. English Today 25(1), 50-57.
43. Park, J. S-Y. 2011. The promise of English: Linguistic capital and the neoliberal worker in the South Korean job market. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 14, 443-455.
44. Park, J. S-Y. 2016. Language as pure potential. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 37(5), 453-466.
45. Park, S-H. 2020. The perception and evaluation of online classes by primary English teachers in the era of COVID-19. Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics 36(4),183-212.
46. Park, E. and C. Jang. 2012. Private English education experience, learning achievement and motivation according to the socioeconomic classes of parents. Secondary English Education 5(2), 51-69.
47. Park, M. and J. Yin. 2021. Understanding online teaching experiences of secondary English teachers during COVID-19. Journal of the Korea English Education Society 20(3), 139-166.
48. Park, J. S-Y. and L. Wee. 2012. Markets of English: Linguistic Capital and Language Policy in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge.
49. Park, S. J. and N. Abelmann. 2004. Class and cosmopolitan striving: Mothers’ management of English education in South Korea. Anthropological Quarterly 77(4), 645-672.
50. Park, H., D. W. Jeong, J. Lee, M. Park and S. Cho. 2013. Structural factors analysis of education gap in elementary and secondary education in Seoul. Journal of Educational Administration and Policy 22(4), 55-83.
51. Parkes, J. and T. Ruth. 2011. How satisfied are parents of students in dual language education programs?: ‘Me parece maravillosa la gran oportunidad que le están dando a estos niños.’ International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 14(6), 701-718.
52. Reimers, F. M. 2022. Learning from a pandemic: The impact of COVID-19 on education around the world. In F. M. Reimers, ed., Primary and Secondary Education During Covid-19: Disruptions to Educational Opportunity During a Pandemic, 1-37. Cham: Springer.
53. Seabra, F., M. Abelha, A. Teixeira, L. Aires. 2021. Learning in troubled times: Parents’ perspectives on emergency remote teaching and learning. Sustainability 14, 301.
54. Shin, H. and B. Lee. 2019. “English divide” and ELT in Korea: Towards critical ELT policy and practices. In X. Gao, ed., Second Handbook of English Language Teaching. Cham: Springer. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-319-58542-0_5-1
55. StataCorp. (2017). Stata statistical software: Release 15. StataCorp LLC.
56. Statistics Korea. 2021. 2020nyeon Chojunggosagyoyukbijosa Gyeolgwa [2020 Elementary, Middle and High School Private Education Expenses Survey Results]. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from https://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/1/7/1/index.board?bmode=read&bSeq=&aSeq=388533&pageNo=1&rowNum=10&navCount=10&currPg=&searchInfo=&sTarget=title&sTxt=
57. Sung, K.-Y. 2020. Parent satisfaction and one-way Mandarin Chinese dual-language programs in Utah. Bilingual Research Journal 43(4), 384-399.
58. UNESCO. 2020. From COVID-19 Learning Disruption to Recovery: A Snapshot of UNESCO’s Work in Education in 2020. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from https://en.unesco.org/news/covid-19-learning-disruption-recovery-snapshot-unescos-work-education-2020
59. Wallace, L. and J. Young. 2010. Implementing blended learning: Policy implications for universities. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 13. Retrieved on December 29, 2021, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/
60. Woo, M. 2013. Educational equity at the middle school in Seoul. The Journal of Economics and Finance of Education 22(4), 55-83.